Negotiation of Meaning and Corrective Feedback in Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Interactions

Angelica Ribeiro


This case study examines corrective feedback strategies in face-to-face (FTF) interaction versus text synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) between a second language (L2) learner and a native speaker of English. The following research questions guide this study: (a) What corrective feedback strategies are used when negotiations occur in FTF and text-SCMC task-based interactions? (b) Which corrective feedback strategies lead to more opportunities for L2 learning through FTF and text-SCMC task-based interactions? The data collection consisted of a background questionnaire, an FTF task, a text-SCMC task, and an open-ended questionnaire. Negotiation instances and corrective feedback strategies were coded. Content analysis was used to analyze the open-ended questionnaire responses. Results indicated that the FTF mode promoted more negotiations of meaning and corrective feedback strategies, especially repetitions and elicitations. Results also demonstrated that the lack of particular corrective feedback strategies (e.g., recasts) and uptake may have impacted the opportunities for L2 development. Moreover, results provided evidence to support that text-SCMC could be an appropriate tool for language acquisition.


computer-mediated communication, corrective feedback, negotiation of meaning, second language development, face-to-face interaction

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