Identifying key factors influencing violence directed toward K-12 Teachers in American schools

Matthew James Etchells, Antonia Ketsetzi, Kenneth Fleming, Samantha Meister, Hersh Waxman

Abstract


There is an increasing occurrence in school violence (Ricketts, 2007) directed towards teachers (Espelage, 2013) with 80% of teachers reporting at least one victimization experience in the current or past year (American Psychological Association Task Force on Violence Directed Against Teachers, 2011). Therefore, identifying the key factors influencing violence towards K-12 teachers in American schools is important. This research utilizes a sample of 8,101 teachers from the 2011-2012 School and Staffing Survey (SASS). The results indicate 21% reported being threatened with injury and 8.6% reported being physically attacked. The results suggest violence manifests as a result of school climate and environment.


Keywords


School violence, School climate, School and Staffing Survey, Sick Schools

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alvarez, K.H. (2007). The impact of teacher preparation on responses to student aggression in the classroom. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 1113–1126.

American Psychological Association Task Force on Violence Directed Against Teachers. (2011). Understanding and preventing violence directed against teachers. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ed/schools/cpse/activities/classroom-violence.pdf

Arendt, H. (1969). The crisis in education. In Between past and future: Eight exercises in political thought (2nd ed., pp. 173–196). New York, NY: Viking Press.

Benhorin, S., & McMahon, S. D. (2008). Exposure to violence and aggression: Protective roles of social support among urban African American youth. Journal of Community Psychology, 36(6), 723–743.

Davies, L. (2004). Education and conflict: Complexity and chaos. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

De Vos, J., & Kirsten, G. J. C. (2015). The nature of workplace bullying experienced by teachers and the biopsychosocial health effects. South African Journal of Education, 35(3), 1-9.

Dworkin, A. G., Haney, C. A., & Telschow, R. L. (1988). Fear, victimization, and stress among urban public school teachers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 9, 159–171. DOI:10.1002/job.4030090207.

Espelage, D., Anderman, M.E., Brown, E.V., Jones, A., Lane, L.K., Susan D. McMahon, D.S.,

Fine, M., & Weis, L. (2003). Silenced voices and extraordinary conversations: Re-imagining schools. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Gregory, A., Cornell, D., & Fan, X. (2012). Teacher safety and authoritative school climate in high schools. American Journal of Education, 118, 1–25.

Greytak, E. A., Kosciw, J. G., & Boesen, M. J. (2013). Educating the Educator: Creating supportive school personnel through professional development. Journal of School Violence, 12(1), 80-97.

Hart, P. M., Wearing, A. J., & Conn, M. (1995). Conventional wisdom is a poor predictor of the relationship between discipline policy, student misbehaviour and teacher stress. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 65(1), 27-48.

Hemmings, A. (2003). Fighting for respect in urban high schools. Teachers College Record, 105(3), 416–437.

Kennedy, K. J. (1996). New challenges for civics and citizenship. ACT. Australia: ACSA.

Kitzmiller, M.E. (2013). “You Can’t Control Me!” Cultivating authority in a struggling urban high school. Teachers College Record, 115, 1- 43.

Lewis, R. (2001). Classroom management and student responsibility: the students' view. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 307-319.

Lipsey, M. W. & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis (Vol. 49). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.

McAdams III, R.C., & Victoria A. Foster, A.V. (2008). Voices from “The Front”. Journal of School Violence, 7(2), 87-103.

Metz, M. H. (1978). Classrooms and corridors: The crisis of authority in desegregated secondary schools. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Ozfidan, B., & Ugurlu, O. (2015). The Idea of Race and Racial Differences. Electronic International Journal of Education, Arts, and Science, 1(1), 85-98

Ozfidan, B., Cavlazoglu, B., Burlbaw, L., & Aydin, H. (2017). Reformed Teaching and Learning in Science Education: A Comparative Study of Turkish and US Teachers. Journal of Education and Learning. 6 (3), 23-30. doi.10.5539/jel.v6n3p23

Pace, J., & Hemmings, A. (2006). Understanding classroom authority as a social construction. In Classroom authority: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 1–31). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Reddy, A.L., & Reynolds, R.C. (2013). Understanding and Preventing Violence Directed Against Teachers: Recommendations for a National Research, Practice, and Policy Agenda. American Psychologist, 68(2), 75–87. DOI: 10.1037/a0031307.

Ricketts, L, M. (2007). K-12 teachers’ perceptions of school policy and fear of school Violence. Journal of School Violence, 6(3), 45-67. DOI:10.1300/J202v06n03_04 45.

Robers, S., Kemp, J., Rathbun, A., and Morgan, R.E. (2014). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2013 (NCES 2014-042/NCJ 243299). National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Washington, DC.

Robers, S., Zhang, J., and Truman, J. (2010). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2010 (NCES 2011-002/ NCJ 230812). National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Washington, DC.

Roberts, D.S., Wilcox, P., May, C.D., & Clayton, R.R. (2007). My school or our School? The effects of individual versus shared school experiences on teacher perceptions of safety.

Journal of School Violence, 6(4), 33-55. DOI: 10.1300/J202v06n04_03.

Rojas-Flores, L., Herrera, S., Currier, J. M., Foster, J. D., Putman, K. M., Roland, A., & Foy, D. W. (2015). Exposure to violence, posttraumatic stress, and burnout among teachers in El Salvador: Testing a mediational model. International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation, 4(2), 98-110.

Van Dat, T. (2016). Coping styles with student misbehavior as mediators of teachers’ classroom management strategies. International Journal of Higher Education, 5(1), 1-10.

Vettenburg, N. (2002). Unsafe Feelings Among Teachers, Journal of School Violence, 1(4), 33-49.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Electronic International Journal of Education, Arts, and Science (EIJEAS)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

ISSN  2378-0991 (online)